As with any programming language, there are key coding principles and best practices that will help you write efficient, scalable code.
Below are some point about apex best practices –
1) Apex is case in sensitive, for better readability use naming conventions like in Java
2) Bulkify your Code – Write the code handles a single record as well as more than one record at a time in case of batch.
3) Avoid SOQL Queries or DML statements inside FOR Loops – If you write a SOQL inside a for loop that may throw LimitException if it goes beyond 100 SOQL limit.
4) Bulkify your Helper Methods – Helper methods must take collection (Array, List, Set, etc.) as argument for bulk data processing.
5) Use of the Limits Apex Methods to Avoid Hitting Governor Limits – In systems debug log you can print different methods of Limit class like Limits.getLimitQueries() to check for governor limits
6) Use @future Appropriately – Keep in mind the governor limit of @future methods
7) Writing Test Methods to Verify Large Datasets – Write test case that handles large data
8) Avoid Hard-coding IDs – Try to avoid writing hard-coded ID inside apex code
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