Salesforce Controller Types
Standard controllers can provide all the functionality you need for a Visualforce page because they include the same logic that is used for a standard page.
A custom controller is an Apex class that implements all of the logic for a page without leveraging a standard controller. Use custom controllers when you want your Visualforce page to run entirely in system mode, which does not enforce the permissions and field-level security of the current user.
A controller extension is an Apex class that extends the functionality of a standard or custom controller.
Standard list/Custom list controllers allow you to create Visualforce pages that can display or act on a set of records. Examples of existing Salesforce pages that work with a set of records include list pages, related lists, and mass action pages.
Resources: Salesforce Documentation
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